World Diabetes Day 2020: 11 facts and more about the Sweet Killer

Nurses in the world must give awareness on Diabetes, particularly the signs of symptoms, complications and dietary habits of a diabetic patient in the community.

 “In India, one in five adults has diabetes… Every 10 seconds, one person in the world dies of diabetic complications… India means ‘Diabetes Capital of the World’.

World Diabetes Day was created in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation and WHO in response to the growing concerns about its escalating health threat posed by diabetes. And World Diabetes Day became an official United National Day in 2006, with the passage of the UN Resolution 61/225. It is marked every year on 14th November the birthday of Sir Frederick Banting, who co-discovered insulin along with Charles Best in 1922.

World Diabetes Day is Celebrated World Wide by over 230 members association of the International Diabetes Federation in more than 160 countries and territories, all Member State of the United National as well as by other association and organisations, Companies, Health Care professional & people living with diabetes and their families.

The theme of World Diabetes Day 2020 is Nurse and Diabetes. It means the Nurses are one of the important Health Workers of the Community, they make up more than 65 per cent of the total Health Workers. Their help is highly essential for early diagnose, management and Prevention of Diabetes both in the Rural and Urban areas. They must give awareness of Diabetes Particularly signs of Symptoms, Complications and Dietary habits of Diabetic Patient in the Community. Diabetic Patients should follow their instruction and others because:-

1. Diabetes is a chronic disease

2. Requires a large amount of money for the treatment causing financial losses

3. Requires a separate Diabetic Diet

4. Requires regular in time for taking food

5. Requires regular exercise

6. May transmit the disease to the next generation son or daughter. Diabetes is affected by Genetic.

7. Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally causing 2-1 million deaths per year.

8. Women with type 2 diabetes are almost 10 times more likely to have coronary heart disease than women without the condition

9. May develop depression and stress during the course of the disease.

10. Male with diabetes may have sexual problems like impotence, erectile dysfunction etc. causing unhappy family life.

11. If not treated, it may give fatal complications like retinopathy, heart failure, kidney failure and peripheral vascular disease.

So, all the family members should educate or learn about this disease at the earliest time with the hope of promoting the complications of this disease. UNFORTUNATELY, ONCE IT HAS DEVELOPED DIABETES DOES NOT GO AWAY AND THE THREAT OF SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS NEVER GOES AWAY. For this reason, a person who has diabetes may need the help and support of their family.

What is Diabetes?

There are three main types of Diabetes

Type - 1 Diabetes:

Usually diagnosed in children (juvenile diabetes) and young adults.

The body does not produce Insulin.

There is a destruction of insulin-secreting cells (b-cells) of the pancreas in our body.

The cause is immune-mediated or idiopathic.

Usually requires external insulin therapy hence known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

5-10% of diabetic have Type - 1 Diabetes.

Type - 2 Diabetes:

Affect 90 - 95% of the diabetic patient. Also known as Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). The body does not produce enough insulin (Insulin Deficiency) or the body cells do not respond to insulin (Insulin Resistance) or both, asymptomatic for many years. Various risk factors include Family History, Age above 40 years, Sedentary, Diet, weight, History of gestational diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes Display high blood sugar level during pregnancy, usually occur at around 28 weeks or later affect about 4% of all pregnant women, usually goes away after pregnancy, raises mother’s risk of getting Type - 2 diabetes for the rest of her life. Also raises the child’s risks of being overweight and getting diabetes, Causes are unknown.

Sign & Symptoms of Diabetes:

Frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, excess thirst, Lack of energy, blurry vision, extreme hunger, slow wound healing, frequent infection, very dry skin, tingling and numbness in hands and feet.

Risk factors for Diabetes:

Family history, Age over 40 years, sedentary lifestyle, overweight, history of gestational diabetes.

Complications of Diabetes:

It is a SWEET KILLER and becomes the foundation of many other illnesses like Diabetic

Retinopathy causing blindness, diabetic nephropathy leading to failure of kidney, Nerve damage

and neuropathy with erectile dysfunction, Heart attack account for at least 70% of all death in

people with diabetes, stroke resulting from clogging of the arteries providing nutrition to the

brain, lower limb infection-causing gangrene & amputation.

The World Diabetes Day Campaign aims to:

To promote International Diabetic federation advocacy efforts through the year

To promote the importance of taking diabetes as a critical global health issue. The Campaign as represented by a blue circle logo that was adopted in 2007 after the passage of the UN resolution

on diabetes. The blue circle is the global symbol for diabetes awareness. It signifies the unity of

the global diabetes community in response to the epidemic. Activities organized each year include, Radio and Television Programmes, free screening for diabetes and its complications, Poster and leaflet Campaigns, diabetic workshop and exhibitions, press conferences, newspaper and magazines articles, walks and runs etc.

Management of Diabetes:

Thirty minutes of physical activity five days a week. Maintain a healthy weight, eat less fat and salt, stop smoking, eat more fibre containing food, Reduce alcohol consumption, Eat at least three different times throughout the day, Diet and lifestyle are considered to be the cornerstone of treatment of diabetes.

Prevention of Diabetes:

Diabetes is a SWEET KILLER. So it is to be prevented at the earliest time. The more we delay the more damage to the vital organs. Prevention may be Primary, Secondary & Tertiary. Primary Prevention:

Maintenance of normal body weight, physical exercise and good nutrition include an adequate protein intake, a high intake of dietary fibre and avoidance of sweet foods. Alcohol should be avoided. Also, avoid oral contraceptives.

Secondary Prevention:

To maintain blood level by treatment.

To maintain ideal body weight.

Testing glucose levels every three after the age of 45.

Tertiary Prevention:

To organise specialized clinics (Diabetic clinics).

To establish basic Clinical Research.

To establish epidemiological Research.

To establish national registries for diabetes.

LIFE DOES NOT END WITH DIABETES AND THERE IS STILL HOPE

(The writer is the president of Manipur Heart Care Society Imphal - the views expressed are the writer’s own)

First Published:Nov. 14, 2020, 12:55 p.m.

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